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Title screen, circa 1995

The Duke Nukem 3D prototypes are builds of Duke Nukem 3D, Duke Nukem 3D: Atomic Edition, or Duke Nukem 3D: 20th Anniversary World Tour that precede their commercial releases. Several of these builds have either been leaked or officially released as freeware. However, most are only known from screenshots or demo footage.


April 1994

See Also: April 1994 Build Demo

The April 1994 Build Demo showed that Ken Silverman had nearly finished the Build engine used in Duke Nukem 3D. Although the demo footage precedes work on Duke Nukem 3D, the demo could be considered a Duke Nukem 3D prototype because it features a map that would later be incorporated into the December 1994 prototype as E1L9 of LameDuke.


BUILD Engine (April 1994)


See Also: Duke Nukem IIID

Official work on Duke Nukem 3D began sometime around the middle of 1994. At this point, Allen Blum was the only level designer on the team.

In 2014, 3D Realms released footage from a mid-1994 prototype. In the video, the name Duke Nukem IIID appears at the top of the in-game menu. Richard "TerminX" Gobeille, who signed a non-disclosure agreement and was given the complete archive of Duke Nukem 3D development files, has identified this prototype as the earliest build of Duke Nukem 3D. Fans have affectionately nicknamed the prototype LamerDuke because it preceded the December 1994 prototype, officially known as LameDuke.


Duke Nukem IIID

Sometime after the release of the Duke Nukem IIID footage, Gobeille quizzed forum users on Duke4 as to which level in the commercial game they thought was the oldest. Derelict, which was nearly finished in the December 1994 prototype, was the most popular answer, but this was incorrect. According to Gobeille, the oldest map to appear in commercial copies of Duke Nukem 3D was Stadium. Because Stadium is older than Derelict, this would mean it must have been started in mid-1994.

Gobeille posted a screenshot from the oldest version of the map.

Earliest build of Stadium, circa 1994

Final 1996 build

November 7, 1994

Early concept art for the Jellyfish is dated November 7, 1994.

November 29, 1994

December 2, 1994

December 4, 1994

Late December 1994

December 30, 1994

See Also: LameDuke

The December 1994 prototype, officially known as LameDuke, was finished in December 1994. Official sources at 3D Realms have stated that LameDuke was compiled on December 30, 1994. However, the executable is timestamped January 3, 1995, and some of the maps were last modified on January 1, 1995. It is unclear what accounts for these discrepancies, but in any case, the developers consider the prototype to have been completed as of December 1994.


LameDuke Playthrough by Max Ylitalo

Parts of levels from the final game could be found in LameDuke. These levels include:

  • Hollywood Holocaust: The basis for a large part of this level could be found on E1L6
  • Red Light District: The basis for a large part of this level could be found on E1L6
  • Death Row: A proof-of-concept and the basis for a small part could be found on E3L1 and E3L7, respectively
  • Toxic Dump: The basis for parts of this level could be found on E3L7
  • Lunar Reactor: Areas resembling small parts of this level could be found on E1L4 and E1L6
  • Overlord: Large parts of this level were finished and accessible on E2L8 and duplicated on E3L8
  • Rabid Transit: The basis for parts of this level could be found on E1L5
  • Hotel Hell: A proof-of-concept could be found on E2L6, which may have formed the basis for the final
  • Derelict: This level was nearly finished and fully playable as E3L2

Early January 1995

Pig Cop by Chuck Jones

Later colorization by Chuck Jones himself

January 24, 1995

Pig Cop

Pig Cop

February 27, 1995

March 1995

According to a blog post on 3D Realms' website, Richard "Levelord" Gray joined the team on March 10, 1995. Although no images can be definitively dated to this period, Gray's earliest maps likely date to March, since his prior experience designing maps in the Build engine would preclude the need for much onboarding.

April 4, 1995

January - April 1995

February - April 1995

Duke has a scar on the back of his left hand. The Pistol uses the faded sprite from LameDuke. The Tazer has not yet been replaced with the Mighty Foot.

February - May 1995

Three of these images come from the June 1995 issue of Joystick (#61), and two come from Gobeille. The scar on Duke's hand has been removed, and the Tazer has been replaced with the Mighty Foot.

April - Early May 1995

A scrapped level known as AHB-Space appeared on season 5, episode 14 of GamesMaster, a British TV show. The episode aired on December 21, 1995, but there are several clues that the prototype shown in the episode comes from April or early May. Screenshots dated May 18, 1995 (such as this one) show that the blue HUD from the GamesMaster episode had already been replaced with the green HUD found in many subsequent screenshots. However, the fonts on the signs above the doors are no longer red like in earlier screenshots. Instead, they have been replaced with the tan font found in subsequent images. In addition, the scar has been removed from the back of Duke's hand. Taken together, this means the prototype precedes May 18 but comes after the January - April 1995 screenshots.


GamesMaster Series 5 Episode 14

Except for the starting location and presence of Laser Tripbombs, the map shown in this footage is indistinguishable from the May 9, 1995 demo footage.

May 1995

Numerous promotional screenshots were packaged on a CD with the September 1995 issue of Score Magazine. These screenshots are unusual in that the files on the CD contain precise timestamps, down to the minute. These timestamps concord with other known facts about the Duke Nukem 3D development timeline, and they even track the order of progression within specific levels, exactly as one would expect. Therefore, these timestamps are considered reliable.

In addition, a demo reel dated May 9, 1995 has been made publicly available.

May 9, 1995

In early 2014, Gobeille and Evan "Hendricks266" Ramos signed non-disclosure agreements and were given the complete archive of Duke Nukem 3D development files. 3D Realms gave them the files because they wanted the two to identify salvageable files and to package them in a distributable form. One of the project's first discoveries was a demo reel dated May 9, 1995. Gobeille recorded his live reactions while watching the reel with his son and posted the resulting video to the Duke4 forums. Shortly thereafter, Ramos uploaded the demo reel to YouTube. However, a lawsuit with Gearbox Software ultimately brought an indefinite halt to the project.

The demo reel below is still available on YouTube.


Duke Nukem 3D Beta 1995-05-09

May 10, 1995 @ 2:12:54

E1L6 of LameDuke

May 10, 1995 @ 2:20:00

Near the start of Warp Factor, as seen in this video

May 10, 1995 @ 2:20:32

Unidentified. Possible: AHB-Space or Warp Factor

May 10, 1995 @ 2:23:06

Area on Warp Factor that was repurposed on It's Impossible

May 10, 1995 @ 2:24:02

Warp Factor, as seen in this video

May 10, 1995 @ 2:30:10

Two rooms on AHB-Space that were repurposed on Tiberius Station

May 10, 1995 @ 2:32:24

AHB-Space, later incorporated into Lunar Reactor (see comparison)

May 18, 1995 @ 20:31:48

AHB-Space, as seen in this map and later incorporated into Lunar Reactor; first instance of the green HUD

May 18, 1995 @ 20:36:24

Dark Side; the inside of this structure can be seen here

May 21, 1995 @ 21:32:02

Dark Side

May 21, 1995 @ 21:33:32

Dark Side with control panels and a chair added since previous footage; first instance of a flying Trooper; first instance of the Trooper firing a stream of projectiles; first of many instances of a colored light on the player's weapon, possibly meant to distinguish players during multiplayer

May 21, 1995 @ 22:43:44

RPV piloted by an Enforcer and firing explosives on E1L6 of LameDuke

May 21, 1995 @ 22:50:26

Alpha Transport on Dark Side

May 21, 1995 @ 22:52:06

Outside the dissection lab on Dark Side

May 21, 1995 @ 22:57:04

First instance of the Flamethrower with a blue light, firing at a LameDuke Drone on Dark Side

May 21, 1995 @ 23:00:50

Unidentified. Possible: Tiberius Station or E1L2 of LameDuke

May 21, 1995 @ 23:11:00

Dark Side

May 27, 1995 @ 14:09:32

E3L7 of LameDuke; later incorporated into Death Row, where the railing is turned into a ledge; first instance where the Enforcer no longer fires blue projectiles

May 27, 1995 @ 14:15:10

E1L6 of LameDuke; Gobeille has confirmed this police car was directly copied-and-pasted onto Freeway

May 27, 1995 @ 15:12:46

E1L6 of LameDuke and first instance of the Flamethrower with a red light

February - June 1995

This image is difficult to date.

Tiberius Station

June 1995

Several screenshots that were packaged with the September 1995 issue of Score Magazine were dated to June, rather than May. Three of these have precise timestamps like the May screenshots, but two do not have reliable timestamps.

The two images with unreliable timestamps have copied-and-pasted messages across the tops. Several of the May screenshots also had these messages (those versions are not shown on this page), but the images with these messages included versions with and without the messages. The versions with the messages all had matching timestamps, indicating they were simultaneously processed in batches to apply the message. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that screenshots with this message across the top have reliable timestamps.

In fact, the images dated June 1 and June 30 come from batches of several images with known May dates that also had this message across the top, suggesting these two may have also come from May.

June 1, 1995

As explained, this image is dated June 1, but because the message across the top was applied as part of a batch with some of the May screenshots, this image may also come from May. However, it was the only file from this batch that did not come with a matching file without the message.

Dark Side with the "Polaris Outpost" sign taken from AHB-Space

June 4, 1995 @ 19:17:24

E1L6 of LameDuke and last instance of the flashlight

June 4, 1995 @ 19:18:40

E1L6 of LameDuke

June 4, 1995 @ 19:19:32

E1L6 of LameDuke

June 30, 1995

Similar to the June 1 image, this image has a message across the top, suggesting its timestamp may be unreliable. It was processed in a batch with several May screenshots, but unlike the others, there was no version of this image without the message.

Tiberius Station with most features from the final build, including an indent in the left wall

July 8, 1995

May - August 1995

These screenshots are difficult to date. All of these maps either have not been seen in previous screenshots or have been significantly updated. Novel sprites are introduced for some of the enemies, and the Trooper's jetstream, which was once semi-transparent, is now opaque. The concept art is foreshadowing the Assault Trooper (particularly the alternate sprites used to make the Firefly Trooper), so it likely precedes the Assault Trooper's first appearance.

August 1995

One image dated August 6 was leaked by Gobeille. Another seven were directly posted to the Internet by the developers. Because these screenshots were directly posted to the Internet without the delays associated with printing or publishing, these screenshots are likely representative of the build at that time.

These screenshots depict an updated HUD, and the colored lights that appear on the player's weapon now appear beside the ammo in the HUD.

August 6, 1995

Last instance of the Jellyfish

August 11, 1995

August - October 1995

Except for the screenshots with HUDs, most of the images from this period are very difficult to date. One crucial assumption is that screenshots depicting blue Assault Troopers must precede green ones. This assumption is based on the observation that even many staged images later use green Assault Troopers.

Stage 1

According to Gobeille, there is no police cruiser on this version of Hollywood Holocaust or on any other maps in his archive; because the cruiser appears again in a later image, the police cruiser screenshots are likely from a separate staging map that has been lost.

Stage 2

At this point in development, the Plasma Cannon fired red projectiles instead of blue. In the image with the red plasma projectiles, there is an explosion on the street in the background that can be matched to the other screenshot taken from the street, indicating these two screenshots were staged simultaneously. Because the edge of the map is visible at the top of the image, this is in fact an early version of Red Light District, after it has already been split-off from E1L6 of LameDuke. Some of the leftover sector geometry from this building can still be found in the out-of-bounds area on Red Light District.

Stage 3

The number "1" corresponding to the Mighty Foot has been removed from the HUD.

Stage 4

The entire line corresponding to the Expander has been removed from the HUD.

November 1995

The developers posted a collection of screenshots to the Internet on November 19, 1995. Because these screenshots were directly posted to the Internet without the delays associated with printing or publishing, these screenshots are likely representative of the build at that time.

In 2021, Gobeille leaked screenshots from a similar build that, based on the placement of the Access Cards in the HUD, must have come after the November 19 build. Gobeille said that his screenshots also came from a November build. In addition, he posted map blueprints for an earlier version of Red Light District and mentioned that these came from a build that was only two weeks older than his other screenshots. Because those map blueprints can be matched to many of the screenshots below, these are all expected to come from an early November build. Moreover, the numbers in the HUD use a "stubby" font in many of these screenshots, indicating they must have come before the November 19 build.

Early November 1995


Duke Nukem 3D - Late 1995 Beta

November 19, 1995

A promotional slideshow released through 3D Realms' website on November 19, 1995 included a small collection of frequently asked questions (FAQs) with answers from developer George Broussard.

Common Duke Nukem 3D questions:

Q: When will it be out?
A: The offical responce is "When it's ready".  We are trying for a pre-XMAS
release, but will hold the game to early January if we don't think it's ready
to go out.  We will NOT rush the game to make some lame deadline.  We are
getting more and more optomistic as the days go by though.

Q: What are the system requirements?
A: 486 DX2/66 (local bus recommended). The basic answer is "What are you happy
playing on?"  We are "happy" with the above system.  8 MEGS of ram and CD will
be required.  Also, a CD-ROM is required for the registered version.

Q: What weapons are there?
A: Still tweaking and working on them, but the basic list is: Kick, High speed
pistol, shotgun, 3 barrel chain gun, rocket launcher, pipe bomb with remote
detonator, shrink ray (really fun), microwave assault cannon, wall mounted
laser trip bomb (plant and forget).  Obviously some will be held back from
the shareware version.  Which ones?  Dunno yet.

Q: How many levels are there and how big is the shareware version?
A: The shareware version will be 5 levels and a secret level.  4 of the levels
are going to be really fun for network play and the other two fairly large,
but slanted towards single play more.  The full game will have another 21
levels or so, depending on time.  At least 18 though.  The shareware version
will likely be between 4 and 5 megs in download size.

Q: Can I be a beta tester?
A: No.  Sorry, but we have all we need at the moment.  We'll post a message
if we need any more.  Please let us get back to work :)

Late November 1995


Late November 1995 Prototype - Hollywood Holocaust in Duke Nukem 3D

December 1995 - January 1996

January 4, 1996

Duke Nukem 3D v0.99 Beta was compiled on January 4, 1996. The image below, which first appears on a screen following the defeat of the Battlelord in beta version 0.99, is from a staging map that was separate from the most recent version of Dark Side. This is known because the stripes on the building are red, which would date it before the August screenshots, yet this image also contains the newer character sprites for Duke, which would date it after the August screenshots.


January 29, 1996

Shareware v1.0 was compiled on January 29, 1996.

January - February 1996

Possibly an early concept for the Overlord

February 20, 1996

Shareware v1.1 was compiled on February 20, 1996.

January - March 1996

The animated sprite likely precedes the implementation of the Overlord's hitscan attack, which is known to have been implemented in the non-shareware version 1.1+ of the game that was compiled on March 4.


Overlord sprite animation

March 4, 1996

The Computer Gaming World Demo, also known as Shareware v1.1+, was compiled on March 4, 1996. At this stage of development:

  • The Overlord had a secondary hitscan attack, corresponding to the machine gun in its crotch from pre-release screenshots.
  • The Devastator was referred to as the "Cycloid," likely in reference to the fact that it resembles the weapon wielded by the Cycloid Emperor.

March 26, 1996

August 1995 - April 1996

There is not enough information to date this image. Because it depicts multiple Battlelord Sentries, it likely came after the earlier screenshots where only one is depicted on Occupied Territory, thus providing a lower bound for the date range. However, the screenshot appears to be from a very early version of Overlord, a level that dates back to LameDuke, so there is not enough information to determine an upper bound.

Unidentified. This is most likely the hallway with the Battlelord Sentry on Overlord, a possibility somewhat supported by exploring the out-of-bounds geometry outside the window

March - April 1996

First appearance of the Devastator, which was briefly called the "Pulverizer"

Close-up of the Overlord; first instance of the Freezethrower

November 1995 - August 1996

April 1996

Version 1.2

Loading screen for version 1.2

Stadium in version 1.2

Version 1.2+

May - October 1996

See also

Duke Nukem 3D
Episodes L.A. MeltdownLunar ApocalypseShrapnel CityThe BirthAlien World Order
Weapons Mighty FootPistolShotgunChaingun CannonRPGPipe BombShrinkerExpanderDevastatorLaser TripbombFreezethrowerIncinerator
Items Access CardsHealth ItemsHolodukeJetpackNight Vision GogglesPortable MedkitProtective BootsScuba GearSteroids
Enemies Assault CaptainAssault CommanderAssault TrooperBattlelord SentryCycloid SentryEnforcerFirefly TrooperOctabrainOverlord SentryPig CopPig Cop TankProtector DroneProtozoid SlimerRecon Patrol VehicleSentry DroneSharkTurret
Bosses BattlelordOverlordCycloid EmperorAlien QueenCycloid Incinerator
Editions ClassicAtomic Edition (Plutonium PAK)20th Anniversary World Tour
Expansions Duke AssaultDuke Caribbean: Life's A BeachDuke It Out In D.C.Duke Nukem 3D Level Design HandbookDuke Nukem's Penthouse ParadiseDuke XtremeDuke: Nuclear WinterDuke!ZONEDuke!ZONE 150Duke!ZONE IIUnofficial Expansions
Community High Resolution PackMods & Total ConversionsSource PortsSpeedrunningUser Maps
Other Build EngineCheat CodesDifficultyDuke Nukem (character)MultiplayerMusicPortsPrototypesQuotesScrapped Content

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